Speed up Python and Node.js builds on Travis CI

Speed up Python and Node.js builds on Travis CI

Travis CI's caching archives all directories listed in the configuration and uploads them to Amazon S3. Cached contents are available to any build on the repository, including Pull Requests. For Python and Node.js projects, you could cache both site-packages and node_modules directories in every Travis CI build.

Here is an example of .travis.yml:

sudo: false

language: python

python:
  - "2.7"

node_js: 4

cache:
  directories:
    - $HOME/.cache/pip
    - $HOME/virtualenv/python2.7.9/lib/python2.7/site-packages
    - node_modules

before_install:
  - pip install -U pip

install:
  - pip install -r requirements.txt
  - pip install coverage --ignore-installed
  - npm install

script:
  - coverage run manage.py test

In the case of mine, after applying these changes, the installation time of pip and npm reduces from 180 seconds to 5 seconds.

One thing should be mentioned here: Since we didn't specify any bin folder in the configuration (and I don't think that's necessary), any execution file that being installed by pip such as coverage or django-admin.py will not exist in subsequent builds. If you need those commands, you could just force install them by adding pip install some_package --ignore-installed.

ref:
https://docs.travis-ci.com/user/caching/
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/19422229/how-to-cache-requirements-for-a-django-project-on-travis-ci
https://tzangms.com/how-to-speed-up-python-unit-test-on-travis-ci/

AWS Lambda Cookbook

AWS Lambda Cookbook

AWS Lambda is an event-driven service that you can upload your code to it and run those code on-demand without having your own servers.

ref:
http://aws.amazon.com/lambda/
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/lambda/latest/dg/limits.html

API Gateway 就是 URL routing
Lambda 則是那些 route (endpoint) 對應的 handler
如果你是用 event 或 schedule 的方式呼叫 Lambda function 的話
可以不用 API Gateway

AWS Lambda 有兩種 invocation type
一是 RequestResponse,同步(例如綁定 API Gateway 和你在 Lambda Management Console 操作的時候)
二是 Event,非同步

Runtimes

AWS Lambda supports the following runtime versions:

  • nodejs (Node v0.10)
  • nodejs4.3
  • java
  • python

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/lambda/latest/dg/current-supported-versions.html

Node.js

const aws = require('aws-sdk');

exports.handle = (event, context, callback) => {
  doYourShit();
  callback(null, 'DONE');
};

每個 Lambda function 會接收三個參數 eventcontextcallback

event 是從外部的 input
可能是來自 S3 object event、DynamoDB stream 或是由 API Gateway POST 進來的 JSON payload

context 則會包含當前這個 Lambda fuction 的一些 metadata
例如 context.getRemainingTimeInMillis()

callback 參數只有 Node.js runtime v4.3 才支援
v0.10 的話得用 context.succeed()context.fail()context.done()
不過誰他媽還在用 Node.js v0.10

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/lambda/latest/dg/programming-model.html
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/lambda/latest/dg/nodejs-prog-model-handler.html
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/lambda/latest/dg/nodejs-prog-model-context.html
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/lambda/latest/dg/best-practices.html

Calling another Lambda function in a Lambda function.

要注意的是
你的 Lambda function 的 role 得要有 invoke 其他 Lambda function 的權限才行

const util = require('util');

const aws = require('aws-sdk');

const params = {
  FunctionName: 'LambdaBaku_syncIssue',
  InvocationType: 'Event', // means asynchronous execution
  Payload: JSON.stringify({ issue_number: curatedIssue.number }),
};

lambda.invoke(params, (err, data) => {
  if (err) {
    console.log('FAIL', params);
    console.log(util.inspect(err));
  } else {
    console.log(data);
  }
});

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSJavaScriptSDK/latest/AWS/Lambda.html
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/31714788/can-an-aws-lambda-function-call-another

完整的程式碼放在 GitHub 上
https://github.com/CodeTengu/lambdabaku

Users and Roles

如果你是用 apex 來管理 Lambda functions 的話
確保你用的 AWS credential (User) 擁有 AWSLambdaFullAccessAWSLambdaRole 這兩個 permissions

以 project 為單位建立 Role 即可
例如 lambdabaku_role
你可以在 IAM Management Console 找到那些你建立的 roles
基本上用 Basic execution role 就夠了
反正之後可以隨時修改 Role 的 permission / policy
Lambda function 屬於哪個 VPC 是額外指定的
跟 Role 沒有關係
也就是說你用 Basic execution role 還是可以支援 VPC

如果想在 Lambda function 裡存取 DynamoDB
要記得在 Role 裡新增對應的設定

{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Sid": "",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
                "logs:CreateLogGroup",
                "logs:CreateLogStream",
                "logs:PutLogEvents"
            ],
            "Resource": "*"
        },
        {
            "Sid": "Stmt1428341300017",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
                "dynamodb:*"
            ],
            "Resource": [
                "arn:aws:dynamodb:ap-northeast-1:004615714446:table/CodeTengu_Preference",
                "arn:aws:dynamodb:ap-northeast-1:004615714446:table/CodeTengu_WeeklyIssue",
                "arn:aws:dynamodb:ap-northeast-1:004615714446:table/CodeTengu_WeeklyPost"
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Scheduled Events

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/lambda/latest/dg/with-scheduled-events.html

API Gateway

單純一點的話
Security 可以選 Open with access key
然後到 API Gateway 介面的 API Keys 底下新增一組 access key
然後分配一個 API stage 給它

使用的時候在 HTTP header 加上 x-api-key: YOUR_API_KEY 即可

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/apigateway/latest/developerguide/how-to-api-keys.html

Related Projects

ref:
https://github.com/serverless/serverless
https://github.com/apex/apex
https://github.com/claudiajs/claudia
https://github.com/garnaat/kappa
https://github.com/Miserlou/Zappa
https://github.com/nficano/python-lambda

淺析 serverless 架構與實作
http://abalone0204.github.io/2016/05/22/serverless-simple-crud/

Deploy Lambda Functions via apex

$ curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/apex/apex/master/install.sh | sh

$ apex deploy
$ apex invoke syncPublishedIssues --logs
$ echo -n '{"issue_number": 43}' | apex invoke syncIssue --logs

ref:
https://github.com/apex/apex
http://apex.run/

AWS DynamoDB Notes

AWS DynamoDB Notes

AWS DynamoDB is a fully managed key-value store (also document store) NoSQL database as a service provided by Amazon Web Services. Its pricing model is that you only pay for the throughput (read and write) you use instead of the storage usage and the running hours of database instances.

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/Introduction.html
http://www.slideshare.net/AmazonWebServices/design-patterns-using-amazon-dynamodb

Glossary

DynamoDB is schema-less.

  • table: a table is a collection of items.
  • item: an item is a collection of attributes (key-value pairs).
  • attribute: attribute is similar to fields or columns in other databases.
  • primary key: one or two attributes that can uniquely identify every item in a table.
    • partition key (aka hash key): a simple primary key, composed of one attribute.
    • partition key and sort key (aka range key): a composite primary key, composed of two attributes.

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/HowItWorks.CoreComponents.html

Global Secondary Index (GSI)

secondary index 指的是除了 primary key 之外的第二組 key
可以有很多組 secondary index
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/SecondaryIndexes.html

GSI 可以用在是 partition key 或 partition + sort key 的 table
GSI 跟 primary key 一樣可以 simple 或是 composite 的
GSI 可以隨時增減

如果你不需要 strong consistency 或個別 partition 的資料量大於 10GB
那就用 GSI

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/GSI.html
http://iamgarlic.blogspot.tw/2015/01/amazon-dynamodb-global-secondary-index.html

Local Secondary Index (LSI)

LSI 只能用在是 partition + sort key 的 table
LSI 必須用原本的 partition key 搭配其他 attribute 做為新的 partition + sort key(LSI 只會是 composite 的)
LSI 只能在建立 table 的時候定義

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/LSI.html
http://iamgarlic.blogspot.tw/2015/01/amazon-dynamodb-local-secondary-index.html

Query and Scan

能不用 scan 就不用
畢竟這個操作就是去掃 table 裡的所有 item

primary key 和 local secondary index 只能在建立 table 時指定
一旦建立就不能改了
但是 global secondary index 就沒有這個限制

如果是用 partition + sork key 當 primary key
get 的時候要同時給 partition key 和 sort key
query 的時候可以只給 partition key 而 sort key 可給可不給(但是 partition key 一定要給)

無論是當 primary key、GSI 或 LSI
只要是 partition key 的 attribute 一律只能使用 = 來 query
該 attribute 沒有 rich query 的能力(就是 >, <, between, contains 那些條件)
sort key 才會有 rich query

Best Practices
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/BestPractices.html

Choosing a Partition Key
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/GuidelinesForTables.html

Querying DynamoDB by date
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/14836600/querying-dynamodb-by-date

Pick an item randomly
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/10666364/aws-dynamodb-pick-a-record-item-randomly

ref:
https://www.uplift.agency/blog/posts/2016/03/clearcare-dynamodb
https://medium.com/building-timehop/one-year-of-dynamodb-at-timehop-f761d9fe5fa1#.3g97b3lqy

Commands

DynamoDB is schema-less, so that you can only define keys you need for specifying primary key or local secondary index when creating table.

# 可以用 project name 作為 table name 的 prefix
# 之後可以隨時修改 read / write capacity units
$ aws dynamodb create-table \
--table-name CodeTengu_Preference \
--attribute-definitions AttributeName=name,AttributeType=S \
--key-schema AttributeName=name,KeyType=HASH \
--provisioned-throughput ReadCapacityUnits=5,WriteCapacityUnits=5

$ aws dynamodb create-table \
--table-name CodeTengu_WeeklyIssue \
--attribute-definitions AttributeName=number,AttributeType=N AttributeName=publication,AttributeType=S AttributeName=publishedAt,AttributeType=N \
--key-schema AttributeName=number,KeyType=HASH \
--global-secondary-indexes IndexName=publication_published_at,KeySchema='[{AttributeName=publication,KeyType=HASH},{AttributeName=publishedAt,KeyType=RANGE}]',Projection='{ProjectionType=ALL}',ProvisionedThroughput='{ReadCapacityUnits=5,WriteCapacityUnits=5}' \
--provisioned-throughput ReadCapacityUnits=5,WriteCapacityUnits=5

$ aws dynamodb create-table \
--table-name CodeTengu_WeeklyPost \
--attribute-definitions AttributeName=issueNumber,AttributeType=N AttributeName=id,AttributeType=N  AttributeName=categoryCode,AttributeType=S \
--key-schema AttributeName=issueNumber,KeyType=HASH AttributeName=id,KeyType=RANGE \
--global-secondary-indexes IndexName=categoryCode_id,KeySchema='[{AttributeName=categoryCode,KeyType=HASH},{AttributeName=id,KeyType=RANGE}]',Projection='{ProjectionType=ALL}',ProvisionedThroughput='{ReadCapacityUnits=5,WriteCapacityUnits=5}' \
--provisioned-throughput ReadCapacityUnits=5,WriteCapacityUnits=5

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/cli/latest/reference/dynamodb/create-table.html
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/cli/latest/reference/dynamodb/update-table.html

$ aws dynamodb put-item \
--table-name CodeTengu_Preference \
--item file://fixtures/curated_api_config.json \
--return-consumed-capacity TOTAL

# fixtures/curated_api_config.json
{
  "name": { "S": "curated_api_config" },
  "apiKey": { "S": "xxx" }
}

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/cli/latest/reference/dynamodb/put-item.html

$ aws dynamodb get-item \
--table-name CodeTengu_WeeklyIssue \
--key '{"number": {"N": "42"}}'

ref:
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/cli/latest/reference/dynamodb/get-item.html

Usage

你應該用 AWS.DynamoDB.DocumentClient
而不是直接用 AWS.DynamoDB

const AWS = require('aws-sdk');

const dynamodb = new AWS.DynamoDB({ apiVersion: '2012-08-10', region: 'ap-northeast-1' });
const dynamodbClient = new AWS.DynamoDB.DocumentClient({ service: dynamodb });

const params = {
  RequestItems: {
    CodeTengu_Preference: {
      Keys: [
        { name: 'xxx' },
      ],
    },
  },
};

dynamodbClient.batchGet(params, (err, data) => {
  if (err) {
    console.log('fail');
    console.log(err);
  } else {
    console.log('success');
    console.log(data);
  }
});

ref:
http://aws.amazon.com/sdk-for-node-js/
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSJavaScriptSDK/latest/AWS/DynamoDB.html
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSJavaScriptSDK/latest/AWS/DynamoDB/DocumentClient.html

完整的程式碼放在 GitHub 上
https://github.com/CodeTengu/lambdabaku

Slack: Build a chat bot with Hubot in JavaScript

Slack: Build a chat bot with Hubot in JavaScript

Hubot is an scriptable chat bot framework created by GitHub. The newer version supports JavaScript (ES6+), no more CoffeeScript!

ref:
https://hubot.github.com/
https://slack.dev/hubot-slack/

Installation

$ npm install -g yo generator-hubot

$ mkdir codetengu-bot
$ cd codetengu-bot
$ yo hubot --adapter=slack

You could find all available adapters here:
https://hubot.github.com/docs/adapters/

Slack Token

The next thing you need is a Slack Bot Token (API Token) which looks like xoxb-xxx for your chat bot app. You could create a Hubot app in your Slack workspace to request a token, for instance https://vintachen.slack.com/apps/A0F7XDU93-hubot.

Otherwise, you could also create an universal Slack app, install it to your workspace. In your app settings, under "Install App" section, you are able to find OAuth Tokens for your chat bot. See https://api.slack.com/apps.

ref:
https://api.slack.com/bot-users

Development

$ HUBOT_SLACK_TOKEN=YOUR_SLACK_BOT_TOKEN \
./bin/hubot --adapter slack

I fork a script named hubot-reload-scripts to help you reload your scripts when developing them.
https://github.com/vinta/hubot-reload-scripts

Hear And Respond Messages

Writing your own script
https://hubot.github.com/docs/scripting/

// scripts/your_script.js
// Description
//   Do your shit
//
// Author:
//   Vinta Chen
//
// Commands:
//   * `restart <service>`* - Restart the service
//
const _ = require('lodash');

module.exports = (robot) => {
  robot.hear(/restart ([a-z0-9_\-]+)/i, (res) => {
    robot.logger.debug(`Received message: ${res.message.rawText}`);
    const [ serviceName ] = res.match.slice(1);
    res.send(`Restarting ${serviceName}`);
    doYourShit();
  });
};

Call Slack APIs

robot.slack.channels.info({'channel': res.message.rawMessage.channel})
  .then(apiRes => {
    const purpose = apiRes.channel.purpose.value;
    const topic = apiRes.channel.topic.value;
    res.send(`purpose: ${purpose}`);
    res.send(`topic: ${topic`);
  })
  .catch(apiErr => {
    robot.logger.error('apiErr', apiErr);
  });

ref:
https://slack.dev/hubot-slack/basic_usage#using-the-slack-web-api
https://api.slack.com/methods

Parse datetime in Python and JavaScript

Parse datetime in Python and JavaScript

Python

I recommend dateutil.

ref:
https://dateutil.readthedocs.org/en/latest/

import datetime
from dateutil import parser as dateutil_parser

>>> dateutil_parser.parse('2014-12-24T16:15:16')
datetime.datetime(2014, 12, 24, 16, 15, 16)

>>> datetime_obj = datetime.datetime.strptime('2014-12-24T16:15:16', '%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S')
datetime.datetime(2014, 12, 24, 16, 15, 16)

>>> datetime_obj = datetime.datetime.strptime('201408282300', '%Y%m%d%H%M')
datetime.datetime(2014, 8, 28, 23, 0)

>>> datetime_obj.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M')

strftime >> datetime -> str
strptime >> str --> datetime

ref:
https://docs.python.org/2/library/datetime.html#strftime-and-strptime-behavior

Django Template

class DriverInfoForm(forms.ModelForm):
    service_time_start = forms.TimeField(
        widget=forms.TimeInput(format='%H:%M'),
        input_formats=['%H:%M', ]
    )

@register.filter
def str_to_time(time_str, output_format):
    """
    把字串轉成 datetime obj
    再依據 output_format 輸出

    {{ news.modified_at|str_to_time:"%Y/%m/%d %H:%M" }}
    """

    from dateutil import parser

    datetime_obj = parser.parse(time_str, fuzzy=True)

    return datetime_obj.strftime(output_format)
日期:{{ withdraw.presented_at|date:"%Y 年 %n 月" }}
聯絡時間:{{ driver.service_time_start|date:"H:i" }} - {{ driver.service_time_end|date:"H:i" }}

要注意的是,Django 似乎不能 parse AM / PM,所以儘量用 24 小時制。

ref:
https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/dev/ref/templates/builtins/#date

JavaScript

I recommend moment.js.

ref:
https://momentjs.com/

var today = new Date().toISOString().slice(0, 10);
// 2016-05-11

var t1 = new Date('2016-05-02T03:00:00.000+01:00');
// Mon May 02 2016 10:00:00 GMT+0800 (CST)

var t1_timestamp_ms = t1.getTime();
// 要注意的是 JavaScript 的 getTime() 的單位是 ms
// 1462154400000

var t1_timestamp = t1.getTime() / 1000;
// 1462154400

var t2 = new Date(1485596172 * 1000);
// Sat Jan 28 2017 17:36:12 GMT+0800 (CST)

var t3 = moment('201408292300', 'YYYYMMDDHHmm');

var t3 = moment('2018-02-02')
var timestamp = time.unix()
// 單位是 second
// 1518192000

ref:
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3552461/how-to-format-a-javascript-date