Tools for profiling your Python projects

Tools for profiling your Python projects

The first aim of profiling is to test a representative system to identify what's slow, using too much RAM, causing too much disk I/O or network I/O. You should keep in mind that profiling typically adds an overhead to your code.

In this post, I will introduce tools you could use to profile your Python or Django projects, including: timer, pycallgraph, cProfile, line-profiler, memory-profiler.

ref:
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/582336/how-can-you-profile-a-script
https://www.airpair.com/python/posts/optimizing-python-code

timer

The simplest way to profile a piece of code.

ref:
https://docs.python.org/3/library/timeit.html

pycallgraph

pycallgraph is a Python module that creates call graph visualizations for Python applications.

ref:
https://pycallgraph.readthedocs.org/en/latest/

$ sudo apt-get install graphviz
$ pip install pycallgraph
# in your_app/middlewares.py
from pycallgraph import Config
from pycallgraph import PyCallGraph
from pycallgraph.globbing_filter import GlobbingFilter
from pycallgraph.output import GraphvizOutput
import time

class PyCallGraphMiddleware(object):

    def process_view(self, request, callback, callback_args, callback_kwargs):
        if 'graph' in request.GET:
            config = Config()
            config.trace_filter = GlobbingFilter(include=['rest_framework.*', 'api.*', 'music.*'])
            graphviz = GraphvizOutput(output_file='pycallgraph-{}.png'.format(time.time()))
            pycallgraph = PyCallGraph(output=graphviz, config=config)
            pycallgraph.start()

            self.pycallgraph = pycallgraph

    def process_response(self, request, response):
        if 'graph' in request.GET:
            self.pycallgraph.done()

        return response
# in settings.py
MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES = (
    'your_app.middlewares.PyCallGraphMiddleware',
    ...
)
$ python manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000
$ open http://127.0.0.1:8000/your_endpoint/?graph=true

cProfile

cProfile is a tool in Python's standard library to understand which functions in your code take the longest to run. It will give you a high-level view of the performance problem so you can direct your attention to the critical functions.

ref:
http://igor.kupczynski.info/2015/01/16/profiling-python-scripts.html
https://ymichael.com/2014/03/08/profiling-python-with-cprofile.html

$ python -m cProfile manage.py test member
$ python -m cProfile -o my-profile-data.out manage.py test --failtest
$ python -m cProfile -o my-profile-data.out manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000

$ pip install cprofilev
$ cprofilev -f my-profile-data.out -a 0.0.0.0 -p 4000
$ open http://127.0.0.1:4000

cProfile with django-cprofile-middleware

$ pip install django-cprofile-middleware
# in settings.py
MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES = (
    ...
    'django_cprofile_middleware.middleware.ProfilerMiddleware',
)

Open any url with a ?prof suffix to do the profiling, for instance, http://localhost:8000/foo/?prof

ref:
https://github.com/omarish/django-cprofile-middleware

cProfile with django-extension and kcachegrind

kcachegrind is a profiling data visualization tool, used to determine the most time consuming execution parts of a program.

ref:
http://django-extensions.readthedocs.org/en/latest/runprofileserver.html

$ pip install django-extensions
# in settings.py
INSTALLED_APPS += (
    'django_extensions',
)
$ mkdir -p my-profile-data

$ python manage.py runprofileserver \
--noreload \
--nomedia \
--nostatic \
--kcachegrind \
--prof-path=my-profile-data \
0.0.0.0:8000

$ brew install qcachegrind --with-graphviz
$ qcachegrind my-profile-data/root.003563ms.1441992439.prof
# or
$ sudo apt-get install kcachegrind
$ kcachegrind my-profile-data/root.003563ms.1441992439.prof

cProfile with django-debug-toolbar

You're only able to use django-debug-toolbar if your view returns HTML, it needs a place to inject the debug panels into your DOM on the webpage.

ref:
https://github.com/django-debug-toolbar/django-debug-toolbar

$ pip install django-debug-toolbar
# in settiangs.py
INSTALLED_APPS += (
    'debug_toolbar',
)

DEBUG_TOOLBAR_PANELS = [
    ...
    'debug_toolbar.panels.profiling.ProfilingPanel',
    ...
]

line-profiler

line-profiler is a module for doing line-by-line profiling of functions. One of my favorite tools.

ref:
https://github.com/rkern/line_profiler

$ pip install line-profiler
# in your_app/views.py
def do_line_profiler(view=None, extra_view=None):
    import line_profiler

    def wrapper(view):
        def wrapped(*args, **kwargs):
            prof = line_profiler.LineProfiler()
            prof.add_function(view)
            if extra_view:
                [prof.add_function(v) for v in extra_view]
            with prof:
                resp = view(*args, **kwargs)
            prof.print_stats()
            return resp

        return wrapped

    if view:
        return wrapper(view)

    return wrapper

@do_line_profiler
def your_view(request):
    pass

ref:
https://djangosnippets.org/snippets/10483/

There is a pure Python alternative: pprofile.
https://github.com/vpelletier/pprofile

line-profiler with django-devserver

ref:
https://github.com/dcramer/django-devserver

$ pip install git+git://github.com/dcramer/django-devserver#egg=django-devserver

in settings.py

INSTALLED_APPS += (
    'devserver',
)

DEVSERVER_MODULES = (
    ...
    'devserver.modules.profile.LineProfilerModule',
    ...
)

DEVSERVER_AUTO_PROFILE = False

in your_app/views.py

from devserver.modules.profile import devserver_profile

@devserver_profile()
def your_view(request):
    pass

line-profiler with django-debug-toolbar-line-profiler

ref:
http://django-debug-toolbar.readthedocs.org/en/latest/
https://github.com/dmclain/django-debug-toolbar-line-profiler

$ pip install django-debug-toolbar django-debug-toolbar-line-profiler
# in settings.py
INSTALLED_APPS += (
    'debug_toolbar',
    'debug_toolbar_line_profiler',
)

DEBUG_TOOLBAR_PANELS = [
    ...
    'debug_toolbar_line_profiler.panel.ProfilingPanel',
    ...
]

memory-profiler

This is a Python module for monitoring memory consumption of a process as well as line-by-line analysis of memory consumption for Python programs.

ref:
https://pypi.python.org/pypi/memory_profiler

$ pip install memory-profiler psutil
# in your_app/views.py
from memory_profiler import profile

@profile(precision=4)
def your_view(request):
    pass

There are other options:
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/110259/which-python-memory-profiler-is-recommended

dogslow

ref:
https://bitbucket.org/evzijst/dogslow

django-slow-tests

ref:
https://github.com/realpython/django-slow-tests

django-debug-toolbar

django-debug-toolbar is a tool sets to display various debug information about the current request and response in Django, works perfectly in Python 2.

ref:
https://github.com/django-debug-toolbar/django-debug-toolbar

Install

$ pip install \
  django-debug-toolbar \
  django-debug-toolbar-line-profiler \
  django-debug-toolbar-template-profiler \
  django-debug-toolbar-template-timings \
  django-debug-panel \
  memcache-toolbar \
  pympler \
  git+https://github.com/scuml/debug-toolbar-mail

ref:
https://github.com/dmclain/django-debug-toolbar-line-profiler << 推薦
https://github.com/node13h/django-debug-toolbar-template-profiler
https://github.com/orf/django-debug-toolbar-template-timings << 推薦
https://github.com/recamshak/django-debug-panel
https://github.com/ross/memcache-debug-panel
https://pythonhosted.org/Pympler/django.html
https://github.com/scuml/debug-toolbar-mail

Python 3
https://github.com/lerela/django-debug-toolbar-line-profile

Configuration

in settings.py

INSTALLED_APPS += (
    'debug_toolbar',
    # 'debug_toolbar_line_profiler',
    # 'memcache_toolbar',
    # 'pympler',
    # 'template_profiler_panel',
    # 'template_timings_panel',
)

DEBUG_TOOLBAR_PANELS = [
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.versions.VersionsPanel',
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.timer.TimerPanel',
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.settings.SettingsPanel',
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.headers.HeadersPanel',
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.request.RequestPanel',
    'debug_toolbar.panels.sql.SQLPanel',
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.staticfiles.StaticFilesPanel',
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.templates.TemplatesPanel',
    # 'template_timings_panel.panels.TemplateTimings.TemplateTimings',
    # 'template_profiler_panel.panels.template.TemplateProfilerPanel'
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.cache.CachePanel',
    # 'memcache_toolbar.panels.memcache.MemcachePanel',
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.profiling.ProfilingPanel',
    # 'debug_toolbar_line_profiler.panel.ProfilingPanel',
    # 'pympler.panels.MemoryPanel',
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.signals.SignalsPanel',
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.logging.LoggingPanel',
    # 'debug_toolbar.panels.redirects.RedirectsPanel',
]

if 'debug_toolbar' in INSTALLED_APPS:
    MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES = (
        'debug_toolbar.middleware.DebugToolbarMiddleware',
        ...
    )

INTERNAL_IPS = [
    '127.0.0.1',
]

ref:
http://django-debug-toolbar.readthedocs.org/en/latest/configuration.html
http://django-debug-toolbar.readthedocs.org/en/latest/panels.html