Solidity: CREATE vs CREATE2

In Solidity, there are two opcodes for creating contracts: CREATE and CREATE2. Also, the deployed contract address can be precomputed via:

  • keccak256(deployerAddress, deployerNonce) if you're using CREATE opcode
  • keccak256(0xFF, deployerAddress, salt, bytecode) if you're using CREATE2 opcode



Default opcode used when deploying smart contracts. If you're deploying a contract using new YourContract() without salt, then you're using CREATE.

The following code written in TypeScript and ethers.js, shows how to deploy a contract using CREATE under the hood:

import { ethers } from 'ethers';

const deployer = await ethers.getNamedSigner("deployer")
const nonce = await deployer.getTransactionCount()
const computedAddress = ethers.utils.getContractAddress({
    from: deployer.address,
    nonce: nonce,
console.log(`computed address: ${computedAddress}`)

const ktbArbitrageurFactory = await ethers.getContractFactory("KtbArbitrageur", deployer)
const ktbArbitrageur = await ktbArbitrageurFactory.deploy(oinchAggregationRouterV5)
console.log(`deployed address: ${ktbArbitrageur.address}`)

Though it's pretty inefficient, but you can specify the deployed address (to some extend) by keeping increasing nonce until it meets some conditions you set:

async increaseNonceToDeployUpgradeable(condition: string, targetAddr: string) {
    const { ethers } = this._hre
    const deployer = await ethers.getNamedSigner("deployer")

    // We use deployer's address and nonce to compute a contract's address which deployed with that nonce,
    // to find the nonce that matches the condition
    let nonce = await deployer.getTransactionCount()
    console.log(`Next nonce: ${nonce}`)

    let computedAddress = "0x0"
    let count = 0
    while (
        count < 2 ||
        (condition == "GREATER_THAN"
            ? computedAddress.toLowerCase() <= targetAddr.toLowerCase()
            : computedAddress.toLowerCase() >= targetAddr.toLowerCase())
    ) {
        // Increase the nonce until we find a contract address that matches the condition
        computedAddress = ethers.utils.getContractAddress({
            from: deployer.address,
            nonce: nonce,
        console.log(`Computed address: ${nonce}, ${computedAddress}`)
        nonce += 1
        count += 1

    // When deploying a upgradable contract,
    // it will deploy the implementation contract first, then deploy the proxy
    // so we need to increase the nonce to "the expected nonce - 1"
    let nextNonce = await deployer.getTransactionCount()
    for (let i = 0; i < count - 1 - 1; i++) {
        nextNonce += 1
        console.log(`Increasing nonce to ${nextNonce}`)
        const tx = await deployer.sendTransaction({
            to: deployer.address,
            value: ethers.utils.parseEther("0"),
        await tx.wait()

    console.log(`Finalized nonce`)



The Solidity code below demonstrates how to deploy a contract using CREATE2 which is introduced in EIP-1014 to provide more flexible and predictable address generation:

bytes32 salt = bytes32("perp");
address oinchAggregationRouterV5 = 0x1111111254EEB25477B68fb85Ed929f73A960582;

address computedAddress = address(
                bytes1(0xff), // avoid conflict with CREATE
                address(this), // deployer
                        type(KtbArbitrageur).creationCode, // bytecode
                        abi.encode(oinchAggregationRouterV5) // constructor parameter

KtbArbitrageur ktbArbitrageur = new KtbArbitrageur{ salt: salt }(oinchAggregationRouterV5);

You can change salt to an arbitrary value to produce different contract addresses.